Young star clusters are the most common birthplace of massive stars and are dynamically active environments. Here, we study the formation of black holes (BHs) and binary black holes (BBHs) in young star clusters, by means of 6000 N-body simulations coupled with binary population synthesis. We probe three different stellar metallicities (Z = 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002) and two initial-density regimes (density at the half-mass radius ρh ≥ 3.4 × 10^4 and ≥1.5 × 10^2 M⊙ pc−3 in dense and loose star clusters, respectively). Metal-poor clusters tend to form more massive BHs than metal-rich ones. We find ∼6, ∼2, and <1 per cent of BHs with mass mBH > 60 M⊙ at Z = 0.0002, 0.002, and 0.02, respectively. In metal-poor clusters, we form intermediate-mass BHs with mass up to ∼320 M⊙. BBH mergers born via dynamical exchanges (exchanged BBHs) can be more massive than BBH mergers formed from binary evolution: the former (latter) reach total mass up to ∼140 M⊙ (∼80 M⊙). The most massive BBH merger in our simulations has primary mass ∼88 M⊙, inside the pair-instability mass gap, and a mass ratio of ∼0.5. Only BBHs born in young star clusters from metal-poor progenitors can match the masses of GW 170729, the most massive event in first and second observing run (O1 and O2), and those of GW 190412, the first unequal-mass merger. We estimate a local BBH merger rate density ∼110 and ∼55 Gpc−3 yr−1, if we assume that all stars form in loose and dense star clusters, respectively.

Binary black holes in young star clusters: The impact of metallicity

Filippo Santoliquido;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Young star clusters are the most common birthplace of massive stars and are dynamically active environments. Here, we study the formation of black holes (BHs) and binary black holes (BBHs) in young star clusters, by means of 6000 N-body simulations coupled with binary population synthesis. We probe three different stellar metallicities (Z = 0.02, 0.002, and 0.0002) and two initial-density regimes (density at the half-mass radius ρh ≥ 3.4 × 10^4 and ≥1.5 × 10^2 M⊙ pc−3 in dense and loose star clusters, respectively). Metal-poor clusters tend to form more massive BHs than metal-rich ones. We find ∼6, ∼2, and <1 per cent of BHs with mass mBH > 60 M⊙ at Z = 0.0002, 0.002, and 0.02, respectively. In metal-poor clusters, we form intermediate-mass BHs with mass up to ∼320 M⊙. BBH mergers born via dynamical exchanges (exchanged BBHs) can be more massive than BBH mergers formed from binary evolution: the former (latter) reach total mass up to ∼140 M⊙ (∼80 M⊙). The most massive BBH merger in our simulations has primary mass ∼88 M⊙, inside the pair-instability mass gap, and a mass ratio of ∼0.5. Only BBHs born in young star clusters from metal-poor progenitors can match the masses of GW 170729, the most massive event in first and second observing run (O1 and O2), and those of GW 190412, the first unequal-mass merger. We estimate a local BBH merger rate density ∼110 and ∼55 Gpc−3 yr−1, if we assume that all stars form in loose and dense star clusters, respectively.
2020
black hole physics, gravitational waves, methods: numerical, binaries: general, stars: kinematics and dynamics, galaxies: star clusters: general
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12571/29582
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